The most important contribution to circulatory physiology with 8 large folded plates illustrating its details.
Nobel Laureate André Cournand considered Lower's book one of the most important texts in the history of physiology.
Lower's main and revolutionary work immediately changed the way the role of the heart and lungs was perceived in the human body. The work is considered a milestone in medical history, as it provides the first practical account of a blood transfusion, establishes that air is a necessity for life, and was the first to demonstrate the structure of the heart.
Lower began practicing medicine in London in 1666 and continued the experiments he had begun at Oxford on blood movement and colour and transfusion. His observations on these subjects were summarized in ‘Tractatus de corde’. He made important observations about the structure of the heart muscle, the amount of blood in the vascular system, the speed of blood flow, and the effects of blood aeration as it passed through the lungs.
He was impressed by the complex arrangement of muscle fibres in the heart and felt that their unique setup was responsible for the contraction of ventricular cavities in the systole that pushed blood into the vascular system. In a series of experiments with Robert Hooke, Lower showed that the red colour of arterial blood was due to its contact with fresh air in his lungs. His book also contained observations on the technique and safety of blood transfusion, a technique of which he was a pioneer (W. Bruce Fye in ‘Grolier One Hundred’).
Coeval full parchment binding, title page with brand of Herman Verbeek and coeval owner’s signatures. Firm binding, water stain and wear at the top margin of the first pages, without affecting the text, signs of woodworm and browning. Pp. 26 nn; 262, (2), 8 tipped-in folded plates [of which the first, unnumbered, should be placed before page 16, the other ones numbered 1-7]. A good copy.
(G&M: 761). Garrion & Morton No. 761 (1st.Ed.)" Printing and the Mind of Man 149 (1st.Ed. ) Eredi di Ippocrate: 582 Cushing L372 Osler 3277 Russel 541 Waller 6047 Lilly Library, p. 87 Fulton, Lower 6 Willems 1412 Wellcome III, 552.
Richard Lower (St. Tudy, 1631 –London, 1691) was a British physician, best remembered for his research into the transfusion and function of the cardio-pulmonary system published in this ‘Tractatus de Corde’.
Lower experimented with the first blood transfusion and devoted himself to the study of the cardio-pulmonary system, publishing his results in the famous work ‘Tractatus de Corde’. In 1666, he followed Willis to London, where he opened a medical practice, but continued his research by becoming, in October 1667, a fellow of the Royal Society. Lower's work was increasingly more successful when, in 1675, he joined the Royal College of Physicians and when, after Willis's death, he was considered the best doctor in London.
Tractatus de Corde. Item de Motu, Colore, & Transfusione Sanguinis, et de Chyli in eum transitu. Ut et de Venae Sectione, his accedit Dissertatio De Origine Catarrhi, in qua ostenditrur, illum non provenire à Cerebro. Editio Quinta, prioribus longe Autior, cum Figuris Aeneis.
Lugduni, Herman Verbeek 1722.
"It was known since ancient times that venous and arterial blood differed in colour"; Lower showed that this difference was caused exclusively by the mixing with air, while the blood from the right side flowed through the lungs. He concluded that the change in colour was caused by the blood’s absorption of air, which explained why air is necessary for life." (PMM 149).
This work also contains a very interesting account of early attempts at blood transfusion. An account that became very influential as the experiment was imitated in France, Italy and Austria." The favourable response proved lasting, and for many years Lower's "Tractatus de Corde" continued to be cited as an important and authoritative work, clearly in the high Harveian tradition of the "anatomical experiment".
"Lower was an ardent supporter of Harvey, and this classic treatise is the first major work on cardiac physiology to appear after Harvey's work. In this book, Lower described for the first time many of the finest structures of the heart, including the roll-like nature of the musculature. He discussed the physiology and mechanism of the heart and breathing, described his experiments on transfusion, and gave an accurate description of tricuspid valve endocarditis. His main contributions included his concept of heart muscles, his explanation of the muscular nature of the heartbeat, and his evidence that dark venous blood turns bright red by passing through the lungs thanks to contact with air in the lungs.
"Lower was the first to demonstrate the spiral structure of the heart muscle. He was one of the first to transfuse blood. Chapter III of the above work records how Lower injected dark venous blood into insufflate lungs and concluded that its subsequent bright red colour was due to the absorption of some of the air passing through the lungs."
- Nombre de livres
- Chirurgie cardiaque, Médecine
- Auteur/ Illustrateur
- Richard Lower
- Titre du livre
- Tractatus de Corde
- Bon état
- Année de publication de l’ouvrage le plus ancien
- Édition illustrée
- Langue originale
- Lugduni, Herman Verbeek
- hors-texte collé
- Nombre de pages
- 183×123 mm