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Spain. Fernando VII (1813-1833). 8 Maravedís Preciosos 8 Maravedís acuñado en 1820 en la ceca de Jubia

Kingdom of Spain. Ferdinand VII (1813-1833)

8 Copper Maravedís minted in 1820 in the Jubia mint

Krause number KM# 491
Country Spain
Denomination 8 maravedis
Year 1817-1821
Subject Small Portrait
Spanish Royal Period (pre-decimal) (1808 - 1858)
Type of coins Coins in circulation
Ruler Ferdinand VII
Copper Alloy
Smooth edge
Circle shape
Medal Alignment (0°)
Weight (g) 9.4
Diameter (mm) 31.6
Thickness (mm) 1.5

King of Spain (El Escorial, 1784 - Madrid, 1833). He was the son of Carlos IV, with whom he had very bad relations: already as Prince of Asturias he conspired against his father, grouping around him a Fernandist party with some courtly and popular support, from all those dissatisfied with the politics of the worthy Godoy. Discovered the conspiracy, the prince was condemned by the process of El Escorial (1807), although he immediately asked for and obtained his father's pardon. This did not prevent him from leading the Aranjuez mutiny, by which he snatched the throne from Carlos IV and overthrew Godoy from power (1808). Fernando, who had maintained contacts with Napoleon throughout his conspiracies, found in that same year that the emperor invaded Spain and had him seized and taken to Bayonne (France); there he forced him to return the Crown to Carlos IV, only to force him to abdicate the Spanish Throne in favor of the emperor's own brother, José I. While Fernando remained confined in Valençay (France), it was the Spanish people who assumed on their own the resistance against the French occupation and the revolutionary process that was to lead the Cortes of Cádiz to elaborate the first Spanish Constitution in 1812; during the ensuing War of Independence (1808-14), the captive king became a symbol of Spanish national aspirations, which is why he was given the nickname El Deseado. Militaryly defeated the French, Fernando recovered the Throne by the Treaty of Valençay (1813); as soon as he arrived in Spain he hastened to follow the invitation of a group of reactionaries (Persian Manifesto) and re-establish the absolute monarchy of the previous century, eliminating the Constitution and the reforming work carried out in his absence by the Cortes (1814).

The rest of Ferdinand VII's reign was marked by his resistance to reforming the outdated structures of the Old Regime, accompanied by bloody repression against liberal-inspired movements. During the "six so-called years" (1814-20) he limited himself to restoring the absolute monarchy as if nothing had happened since 1808, aggravating the financial problems derived from the survival of fiscal privileges and the insufficiency of the traditional tax system; a growing indebtedness suffocated the Royal Treasury, while Spain lost all international prominence (participation in the Congress of Vienna in 1815 ended without any benefit for the country). Unable to react to the process of emancipation of the American colonies, Ferdinand practically allowed them to consolidate their independence from Spain; When, in 1820, he assembled an expeditionary army in Andalusia destined to regain control over America, it pronounced itself under the command of General Riego and launched a revolutionary process that forced the king to accept the restoration of the Constitution of 1812. During During the following Liberal Triennium (1820-23), Fernando tried to save the Throne by pretending to accept his new role as constitutional monarch, but he used all the resources he could to make the regime fail and hinder the reforms of the Cortes and the liberal governments: he conspired to organize a coup by the Royal Guard in Madrid, which failed in 1822; later, he called the absolutist powers of the Holy Alliance to his aid, even leading to a new French invasion of the Peninsula, the campaign of the "One Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis" which, under the command of the Duke of Angoulême, brought down the constitutional regime and replaced Fernando as absolute king (1823). Then began the "Ominous Decade" (1823-33), during which Ferdinand exacerbated his vindictive hatred against any hint of liberalism, while allowing the loss of the Spanish empire in America to be consummated: he annulled once again all the legislative work of the Constitutional Courts, led the Treasury to bankruptcy and drowned in blood new liberal pronouncements. In the last years of his reign, however, the monarch's political concerns came from another side: in 1830 Fernando finally promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction approved by the Cortes of 1789, in which the Salic Law was abolished, returning to the right of succession traditional Castilian that allowed women to inherit the Throne; opportune decision, since in that same year an heir was finally born from his fourth marriage, with his niece María Cristina de Borbón, but it turned out to be female (the future Isabel II). This situation unleashed the anger of Prince Carlos María Isidro, brother of the king, who was separated from the succession for the benefit of his niece, and has since led the discontent of the ultra-royalists, reluctant to any opening or commitment to the sign of the times, which was unequivocally liberal throughout Europe. The pure royalists had already staged an uprising in Catalonia in 1827 (the Rebellion of the Aggrieved) and in the last years of the reign they were preparing to face a civil war; his intransigence made an impression on the king, who at a time of illness repealed the Pragmatics, to re-enact it once he was healthy (1832). With all this, he encouraged the dynastic split that led the country to the First Carlist War (1833-39), once Fernando died and María Cristina ruled as regent on behalf of her daughter, Isabel II.

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Country/province Spain
Ruler Fernando VII (1813-1833)
Denomination 8 Maravedís
Year/Period and Variation Preciosos 8 Maravedís acuñado en 1820 en la ceca de Jubia
Precious metal Silver
Condition Ungraded
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